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kompiuteri, terminebi da calkeuli detalebi

Gzavnili
1 GIGABYTE(Off)
25 Mai, 16:56
kompituteruli terminebi, sazomi erteulebi, shemadgeneli nawilebi, mati danishnuleba da mati monacemebis gamsazgvreli nishnebi. aq arasruli chamonatvalia magram nelnela shevavsebt interesebidan gamomdinare, meti vegar davwere titebi damegala  imedia vinmes gamogadgebat  shegidzliat dasvat kitxvebi kompiuteris calkeul detalebze temis irgvliv da shedzlebisdagvarad vecdebi pasuxi gagcet. oftopisgan tavi sheikavet


zogadi erteulebi:
nanometri (nm). -sigrdzis sazomi erteuli. metris memiliardedi anu milimetris meatasedi. procesoris warmoebisas gamoiyeneba shemadgeneli tranzistorebis zomis agsanishnavad.
herci (Hz). - sixshiris sazomi erteuli. 1Hz nishnavs rom wamshi xdeba erti cikli.
megaherci (MHz). - 1MHz=1000000Hz.
gigaherci (GHz). - 1GHz=1000MHz=1000000000Hz
MT/s da GT/s. - (megatransferi da gigatransferi wamshi) informaciis gadacemis agmnishvneli sidide. 1MT/s nishnavs rom wamshi gadaicema 1milioni operacia. 1GT/s - erti miliardi operacia.
BITI (b). - informaciis yvelaze patara sazomi erteuli. modis orobiti sistemidan (0/1).
kilobiti (Kbit). - 1024bit
megabiti (Mbit). - 1024KB - 1048576bit
gigabiti (Gbit). - 1024Mbit/1048576Kbit/1073741824bit
BAITI (B). informaciis sazomi erteuli udris 8bits
kilobaiti (KB). - 1024B
megabaiti (MB). - 1024KB/1048576B
gigabaiti (GB). - 1024MB/1048576KB/1073741824B.
DPI (Dots per inch). - 1)wertilebis raodenoba kvardatul diumze. skanerebis da printerebis garchevadobis erteuli. (rac magalia mit ueketesia). 2)mausis garchevadobis erteuli (wertilebis raodenoba romelsac maausi ert kvadaratul diumshi agiqvams.
RPM (Rounds Per Minute). - brunva wutshi. magalitad quleris brunvis sixshire.
Ampere (A). -amperi. denis dzalias sazomi erteuli.
Volt (V). - volti. dzabvis sazomi erteuli.
Watt (W). - vati. simdzlavris sazomi erteuli (denis da aramxolod denis).


1.PROCESSORE (procesori)
Clock Rate, Frequency - taqturi sixshire. sixshire, romlitac procesori mushaobs. izomeba megahercebshi (MHz)
Cash - qeshi. mexsiereba, romelic inaxavs droebit informacias. izomeba kilobaitebshi (L1) da megabaitebshi (L2/L3).
L1 Cash- pirveli donis mexsiereba, ("Level 1")
L2 Cash - meore donis ("Level 2"). asrulebs imave funqcias rasac L1 Cash. gamoigones CPU da RAM-s shoris informaciis droulaad gacvlistvis.
L3 Cash - meame donis ("Level3") Cash. funqcia igivea rogorc winamorbedis. L2 didia L1-ze xolo L3 didia L2-ze.
Pipeline - procesoris mier instruqciebis (brdzanebebis) daparaleleba warmadobis gazrdis miznit.
Thread - brdzanebebis ertobrioba, nakadi. romelsac procesori asrulebs tanmimdevrulad.
Multithreading - roca programashi brdzanebebi dawerilia ramodenime nakadad da mati shesruleba shesadzlebelia paralelur rejimshi anu sxvadasxva nakadis brdanebebis ertdroulad shesrulebis unari.
ALU (arithmetic logic unit) - cifruli wredi romelic asrulebs aritmetikul da logikur operaciebs (mimateba, gamravleba da .a.sh.) procesoris centraluri gamomtvleli nawilia. misi ase vtqvat da guli.
FPU (Floating-Point Unit) - procesoris shemafdgeneli nawilia. romelic awarmoebs mcocavi wertilis mqone ricxvebze (mag: 1.234; 12.34; 123.4 da a.sh) gamotvlebs. exmareba ALU-s. tavidan chipis saxit iyo dedadafaze shemdeg moxda misi integracia tavad procesorshi.
FLOPS (FLoating point Operations Per Second) - kompiuteris gamotvliti simdzlavris erteuli. wamshi gadamushavebuli mcocavwertiliani ricxvebis raodenoba.
Address bus - samisamarto salte (8, 16 an 32 bitiani), romelic mexsierebas azvdis misamarts. misi sifarte ganapirobebs ramdeni GB mexsierebis wakitxva sheudzlia sistemas, magalitad 32bitiani sistema kitxulobs 2 xarisxad 32 anu 4,294,967,296. xolo 64, 2 xarisxad 64 anu 17.2 miliard gigabaitamde.
RD da WR - (chawera/wakitxva) arxebi, romlebis mexsierebas awvdis informacias imis taobaze , mexsierebas wakitxva surs tu chawera.
Clock line - taqtis arxi. arxi romelic procesors taqtur sixshires awvdis.
Reset line - gauqmebis arxi. arxi, romelic auqmebs monacemebs da tavidan iwyebs gamotvlas.
TDP (Thermal Design Power) - sitburi energiis gatvla. procesoris mier datvirtvisas gamoyofili sitbos maqsimaluri raodenoba. izomeba vatebshi (w).
VID Voltage Range - dzabvis amplituda romelzec procesori mushaobs. izomeba voltebshi (V)
Bus Speed - saltis sixshire ritac procesori operatiul mexsierebas ukavshirdeba. izomeba megahercebit (MHz).
FSB (Front Side Bus) - "wina salte" salte, romelsac evaleba CPU-s da chipsetis dakavshireba da mat shoris informaciis gacvla, intelis procesorebze 775 soketis chatvlit. misi momatebit xdeba procesoris achqareba.
QPI (QuickPath Interconnect) - igive rac FSB da HT mxolod intelis i7 procesorebze da X58 chipsetze.
Multiplier - procesoris mamravli,sistemur salteze misi gamravlebit miigeba procesoris taqturi sixshire, zogiert procesorze mamravli sheidzleba sheicvalos datvirtvis da sachiroebisamebr avtomaturad. zogiertze kidev aris egretwodebuli gia mamravli romlis gazrdit iszrdeba procesoris taqturi sixshire.
BCLK (Baseclock) - gaigivebulia QPI da FSB-stan misi momatebit xdeba procesoris achqareba "nehalem" arqiteqturaze.
DAMATEBITI INFORMACIA
Intel-is procesorebs aqvt:
TurboBoost - intelis "Nehalem" arqiteqturashi gachnda es avtomaturad achqarebis funqcia. (datvirtvaze procesors emateba mamravli avtomaturad 1 an meti erteulit rac mis achqarebas uzrunvelyofs)
HyperThreading - hipernakaduloba. intel-is teqnologiaa, romlis meshveobit procesoris birtvebi gaangarishebebs paralelur rejimshi axdenen.
HyperTransport - AMD-is procesoristvis "FSB"-is eqvivalenti.


2. videodafa
GPU - videodafis procesori romelic tavad videodafazea motavsebuli.
GPU Clock - GPU-s sixshire. jerjerobit izomeba MHz-shi. rac metia sixshire mit meti pixselis gadamushaveba shesadzlebeli 1 wamshi.
Fill Rate - shevsebis sichqare migvititebs tu ramdenac=d swrafad sheudzlia GPU-s piqselebis daxatva.
Pixel Shader - mati pirdapiri danishnulebaa piqselebis sheqmna. ase rom rac magali sixsjhire aqvs mit male danatacs gamosaxulebas.
Vertex Shader - misi danishnulebaa verteqsebis sheqmna.
Unified Shaders - unificirebuli sheiderebi. es sheiderebi orive zemotxsenebulis gaertianebaa sxva maxasiateblebtan shedarebit axalgazrda maxasiatebelia. magalitad gvqavs 200 verteqs sheideri da 2 piqsel sheideri axla orive matgans 200 unifficirebuli sheideri shecvlis rac sichqares gazrdis da dros dazogavs shesabamisad.
Shader Clock - sheideris sixshire. taqturi sixshire romelzec sheideri mushaobs.
Texture Mapping Units (TMU) - teqsturis gadamamushavebeli, es erteulebi yvela saxis sheidertan moqmedeben da pasuxs ageben teqsturis agebaze da mat filtraciaze. rac metia TMU mit uketesia videodafis teqsturebtan mushaobis done rac gamosaxulebazec aisaxeba.
Raster Operation units (ROP) - rastruli gadamamushavebeli. isini GPU-s mier gadamusahvebul piqselebs bufershi atavseben, ris shedegadac piqselebit gamosaxuleba iwyoba. ROP-zea damokidebuli.
Memory Size - mexsierebis sidide. am parametrzea damokidebuli ra moculobis teqstura, verteqsi da a.sh. chaeteva bufershi. magram tanamderove videodafebshi sxva maxasiateblebtan shedarebit es umnishvnelo monacemia. (zogma icis tqma rom 1gigabaitiani jobia 512 megabaitian video kartaso es sasaciloa radgan dzalian bevri 512 megabaitiani jobia 1 gigabaitian kartebs racac misi sxva zemot chamotvlili parametrebi gansazgvraven )
Memory Clock - maszea damokidebuli tu ramdenad swrafad atarebs mexsiereba informacias.
Memory Type - mexsierebis tipi. (DDR, DDR2, GDDR3, GDDR4, an GDDR5) rac ufro axali tipisaa mit ufro swrafia da mit ufro nakleb energias mouxmars.
Bus width - mexsierebis saltis sifarte. ai am pnacemze ki pirdapiraa damokidebuli tu ramen informacias gadascems GPU mexseierebas wamshi. rac metia mit uketesia videodafis warmadoba.



3.operatiuli mexsiereba (RAM)
RAM (Random Access Memory) - tavisufali wvdomis mexsiereba, romelsic xdeba mushaobis momentshi monacemebis henaxva da damushaveba procesoris meshvceobit. is dzalian swrafi mexsierebaa.
SIMM (single in-line memory module) - ertrigiani mexsierebis moduli. operatiuli mexsierebis erterti adreuli tipi.
DIMM ( Dual in-line memory module) - orrigiani mexsierebis moduli.
SODIMM (Small outline dual in-line memory module) - patara DIMM romelic gamoiyeneba mobilur teqnologiebshi.
Memory Clock - mexsierebis taqturi sixshire izomeba MHz-ebit.
Cycle Time - ciklis dro. is dro, rasac moduli ert amplitudas andomebs, anu 800MHz -iani mexsierebis hemtxvevashi 800 milioni pulsaciis shesrulebis dro gaizomeba nanowamebshi (ns)
I/O Bus clock - I/O (shetana/gamotana) saltis sixshire, modulis calmxrivi sixshire udris modulis "sapasporto" sixshiris naxevars
Data transfers per second - wamshi gadacemuli monacemta raodenoba.
module name - modulis saxelwodeba. tipiurad PCx-yz00, mag. PC2-4300.
Peak transfer rate - max. teoriuli gamtaroba izomeba MB/s-it.
Timings - taimigni. modulis sxvadasxva komponentebis reagirebis dro. izomena taqturi sixshiris ciklebit.
Latency (CAS Latency) - latenturoba, mexsierebis modulis reagirebis dro "mtavari taimingi".

4. informaciis matareblebi:
HDD (Hard Disk Drive) - myari diski (vinchesteri) informaciis shemnaxveli mowyobiloba.
SSD (Solid Stade Drive) - informaciis shemnaxveli mowyobiloba romelic modzravi nawilebisgan ar shedgeba.
Cache - am mowyobilebebshic igive danishnuleba aqvt ceshs.
Capacity - informaciis shenaxvis tevadoba. izomeba megabaitebshi, gigabaitebshi da teramaitebshi
1TB=1024GB.
Areal density - informaciis simchidrove HDD-s diskze. sazomi erteuli - kvadrartul diumze bitebis raodenoba (bits/inch2).
Spindle Speed - brunvis sichqare. izomeba brunvebis raodenobit wutshi. (rpm/s)
Read Speed - wakitxvis sichqare. sazomi erteuli - megabaiti wamshi (Mb/s)
Write Speed - chaweris sichqare. sazomi erteuli - megabaiti wamshi (Mb/s)
Random read seek time - nebismier adgilas wasakitxi informaciis dzebnis dro. iomeba miliwamebit (msec).
Random write seek time - chasaweri adgilis dzebnis dro izomeba miliwamebit (msec).
[Отв]
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Red: (26 Mai, 15:33), sul red. 2 -jer
2 MESERSHMIDT(Off)
26 Mai, 0:06
amdenis wera adamians tu sheeedzlo ar megona.. damaxsovrebaze xo...
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3 zUUr(Off)
30 Okt, 1:09
shesabamisi tema ver movdzebne,amito aq vwer.neroti dvd diski davakopire,anu dvdi faili chavwere jer kompshi mere nerodan axal diskze,kompiuterma chveulebrivad gaxsna,dvd playerma ara,ra gavakete arasworad?
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4 NATali(Off)
02 Noem, 16:33
zUUr, aq rom dawere eg kitxva eg gaakete
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